Breastfeeding vs. Bottle-Feeding

Published: 25th July 2006
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On the Womenshealth.gov website, you will find the common facts that we all hear about the benefits of breastfeeding your baby. Among them are:



Breast milk is the most complete form of nutrition for infants. A mother's milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development. Most babies find it easier to digest breast milk than they do formula.

As a result, breastfed infants grow exactly the way they should. They tend to gain less unnecessary weight and to be leaner. This may result in being less overweight later in life.



Premature babies do better when breastfed compared to premature babies who are fed formula.



Breastfed babies score slightly higher on IQ tests, especially babies who were born pre-maturely.



I continue to get comments from black women who have something to say to me about my articles on breastfeeding and my almost "lecturous tone" when I talk about the benefits of breastfeeding and the dismal statistics that indicate that black women are on the bottom of the totem pole when it comes to choosing breastmilk over formula. I am encouraged in my writings that my words are touching a chord and happy that even if there are those who disagree, that the conversation is being started. Within our community we DON'T talk on a regular basis about the significance of breastfeeding and the long-term ramifications that occur when other means of feeding our babies are given precedence over nursing from the breast. Consumed with the here and now and thinking that the issue of breastfeeding is only significant when a child is a baby, more and more information is pointing to the fact that behavior issues and ailments in adolescence and adulthood stem from the "first foods" fed to a person when they were a newborn.







For many children in the African-American community, that first food is becoming less of a chance of being breastmilk. And, the statistics keep on getting worse.







According to government statistics on women's health, in 2001, breastfeeding rates in the hospital were 72.2 percent among Whites, 73.0 percent among Hispanics, and 52.9 percent among Blacks. These rates were the highest recorded since national breastfeeding data have been collected. However, disparities remain between Black women and women of other racial and ethnic groups. With support groups like La Leche and web sites like Babycenter.com cropping up everywhere with tons of information on the topic, what is the root of this disparity? It can't be from lack of information on the benefits. Perhaps its the lack of information on the effects of using formula.







According to the statistic above, if a little over half of African-American women who gave birth in US hospitals in 2001 were breastfeeding, than almost half were feeding their babies formulas. With new studies showing that black children in larger numbers, when compared to children of other ethnicities, develop some type of intolerance to cow's milk, the formula of choice is often a soy alternative that can be brought as easily as its milk counterpart. I fed my daughter Khari soy formula in tandem with breastfeeding when she began daycare and my expressed milk was not abundant enough to sustain her through the day. How safe is the soy alternative?







Two studies by University of Illinois food science and human nutrition professor Sharon Donovan show that the soy isoflavone genistein, in amounts present in commercial soy infant formulas, may inhibit intestinal cell growth in babies. In the first study, published in the Journal of Nutrition in June 2004, Donovan treated intestinal cells in culture with genistein in the amount present in soy infant formula and found that the cells "basically stopped proliferating." The intestine-- which aids the body in disposing of toxins and waste in the system-- is adversely affected when babies are fed soy formula.







Dr. Francis Crinella, clinical professor of pediatrics at UC-Irvine, and Trinh Tran, a graduate researcher at the UC-Davis Department of Animal Studies, have described how the soybean plant lifts up manganese in the soil and concentrates it so that its use in soy-based infant formula can result in as many as 200 times the levels found in breastmilk.







These and other experts believe that such high concentrations could pose a threat to the immature metabolic systems of babies up to 6 months of age.









The size of the market for soy-based infant formula is held very closely, yet an independent expert estimates the market for all infant formula to be about $3 billion, with soy-based formula accounting for about $750 million of that, having doubled in the last 10 years.









"The brain undergoes a tremendous proliferation of neutrons, dentrites and synapses during the first months of life," Crinella says. "The brain especially is vulnerable in early life precisely because such rampant growth is taking place, and at that time intrusions by potentially toxic substances like manganese perturbing the emerging neural organization can exert long-term effects. Manganese ingested during a period of rapid brain growth and deposited in the critical basal ganglia region may affect behavior during puberty when powerful stresses are un- leashed on the dopamine neurons, and altered behavioral patterns appear."







These altered behavioral patterns during late childhood and early adolescence, according to Crinella, may be diagnosed as hyperactivity with attentional deficit - or perhaps as "manganese-toxicity syndrome."







Everett Hodges, founder of the Violence Research Foundation, thinks Crinella's case is overwhelming. "Criminals ages 16 and 17 years old today, some of them born to poor mothers between 1983 and 1984, could have received from the government soy formula with enough manganese to disrupt growing brains, and this may be why adolescents have difficulty restraining aggressive impulses now."







With African-American youth-- namely boys-- being at the top of the list when diagnosed with ADHD, learning disabilities and a whole host of other "special needs" that often lead to them being kicked out of school or pigeon-holed into special education classes, this news is alarming.









Dr. Stanley van den Noort, a member of the foundation's board, is former dean of the UC-Irvine College of Medicine. He says, "I think the data presented at the conference are convincing that manganese is a neurotoxin. Newborn infants exposed to high levels of manganese may be predisposed to neurological problems. We should exercise strong caution in the use of soy-based formula around the world."







Naomi Baumslag, clinical professor of pediatrics at Georgetown University Medical College and president of the Woman's Public Health Network, says, "Only 50 percent of newborns today suckle at the mother's breast even once. After six months, the number has fallen to only one mother in five. Often mothers for the sake of convenience plunk soy bottles into the infant's mouth. Why do so many mothers in the United States imagine they have given birth to a baby soybean instead of a human child?"







Baumslag goes further: " There is a great deal of scientific evidence that soy formula can be damaging to newborns, quite aside from the manganese."







She says a tablespoon of soy formula can be dangerous both for what it does not have and for what it has.





That spoonful may be deficient in linoleic and oleic essential fatty acids, DHA-brain-growth factor, epidermal growth factor, lactoferrin, casomorphin and immune factors such as IgA, neutrophils, macrophages, T-cells, B-cells and interferon - all provided by the mother in breast milk to defend her baby.





And this information regarding soy just adds to the information already out there on milk-based formulas. For over twenty years, a war has been waged between advocates for breastfeeding and those in the formula industry who peddle their product as being the best things for babies, a close second to breastmilk. In 1981, aides to the World Health Organization resigned when the formula industry began to spread their campaign promoting formula to third world countries that revere the practice of breastfeeding out of tradition, economic necessity and common sense (see article at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9500E0D91438F932A15756C0A967948260)







Often accused of being a conspiracy theorist, I pass this information on intentionally and with forthright honesty. I do believe that it is a conspiracy but not necessarily one that is aimed solely at our community. I believe that how we feed our children has become as commercialized as everything else we do-- from how we attend school to what types of homes we buy. In order to stay atop of the information machine without being passively led to believe that your choice is indeed your best choice possible, you must consider all of the evidence before you. Look at the big picture of how black children are currently faring physically, mentally and behavior-wise and consider how we can turn things around with how we first begin to feed our children, growing them on the breast.







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Check out the following resources to read up more on the topic:







Publications

A Well-Kept Secret- Breastfeeding's Benefits to Mothers (Copyright LLLI) - This publication contains information on the benefits of breastfeeding for the baby and the mother. It includes information on physiologic effects and long-term benefits.

http://www.lalecheleague.org/NB/NBJulAug01p124.html

Benefits of Breastfeeding ( Copyright Linkages Project) - This fact sheet briefly describes the different health benefits that breastfeeding has on mothers and babies.

http://www.linkagesproject.org/technical/bf_benefits.php

Benefits of Breastfeeding (Copyright United States Breastfeeding Committee) - This booklet explains the health and emotional benefits that breastfeeding has on mothers and children. It also gives information on the environmental and economic benefits of breastfeeding.

http://www.usbreastfeeding.org/Issue-Papers/Benefits.pdf

Breast Milk - This publication contains information on breast milk. It explains why it is better than cow milk, how breast milk is produced, how to establish, maintain or increase your milk supply, and how to store it.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002451.htm

Breast-feeding and Bottle-feeding (Copyright © Kids Health) - This publication contains information on the benefits of breastfeeding, the pros and cons of bottle-feeding, instructions on how to breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby, as well as answers to common breastfeeding questions.

http://www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=

20051&article_set=22567

Can Breastfeeding Prevent Illnesses? (Copyright LLLI) - This publication contains information on how breastfeeding can prevent some illnesses in your baby.

http://www.lalecheleague.org/FAQ/prevention.html

Close to the Heart: Breastfeeding Our Children, Honoring Our Values - This publication contains information on why breastfeeding is important, benefits of breastfeeding, and how breastfeeding is a value held by Native American women.

http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/close_to_the_heart.pdf

Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding (Copyright United States Breastfeeding Committee) - This publication explains the medical and economic costs of not breastfeeding, and it has information on the non-medical costs of artificial feeding.

http://www.usbreastfeeding.org/Issue-Papers/Economics.pdf

Feeding Baby with Breast Milk or Formula - This brochure helps parents decide on the way to feed their baby. Breastfeeding is the best, but if it's not possible, there are helpful tips for using formula.

http://www.fda.gov/opacom/lowlit/feedbby.html

Feeding Your Newborn (Copyright Kids Health) - This publication contains information on breastfeeding or bottle-feeding your baby, the advantages of breastfeeding, limitations of both, and possible challenges.

http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/food/infants/feednewborn.html

Got Mom... (Copyright ACNM) - GotMom.org was created by the American College of Nurse-Midwives to provide breastfeeding information and resources for mothers and families. It contains information on why breast milk is best, dispels common misunderstandings about breastfeeding, and it provides a list of resources that can help women and families with breastfeeding, information for employers, and links to the latest research findings.

http://www.gotmom.org/

Mama's Baby: Happy, Healthy and Breastfed (Copyright Black Women's Health Imperative) - This site encourages women to learn about the benefits of breastfeeding. It also addresses the barriers to breastfeeding that women often face and gives tips for overcoming these barriers and having a successful breastfeeding relationship.

http://www.blackwomenshealth.org/breastfeeding

The Comprehensive Benefits of Breastfeeding (Copyright ACNM) - This publication lists the beneficial effects that breastfeeding has on mothers, babies, and society.

http://www.gotmom.org/best/benefits.htm

What are the Benefits of Breastfeeding my Toddler? (Copyright 2006 La Leche League International) - This publication describes how breastfeeding your toddler can help their ability to mature and their understanding of discipline as well as provide protection from illness and allergies.

http://www.lalecheleague.org/FAQ/advantagetoddler.html

Organizations

African-American Breastfeeding Alliance

http://www.aabaonline.com/





American Academy of Pediatrics

http://www.aap.org/





American College of Nurse-Midwives

http://www.midwife.org/





Breastfeeding Basics

http://www.breastfeedingbasics.org/





Bright Future Lactation Resource Centre

http://www.bflrc.com/





International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA)

http://www.ilca.org/





Kids Health

http://www.kidshealth.org





La Leche League International

http://www.lalecheleague.org/





Linkages Project

http://www.linkagesproject.org/





Maternal and Child Health Bureau, HRSA, HHS

http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov/





National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, MCHB, HRSA, HHS

http://www.ncemch.org/





National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition

http://www.hmhb.org/index.html





National Women's Health Information Center, OWH, HHS

http://www.womenshealth.gov





Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, (WIC) USDA

http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/





United Nations Children's Fund

http://www.unicef.org/





World Alliance For Breastfeeding Action

http://www.waba.org.my/



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